“Guy Aldred is an obscure but important figure in the history of socialist thought. He sometimes crops up in histories of British socialism, syndicalist and labour organisation, but rarely in discussions of socialist theory. His uncompromising commitment to activism perhaps explains this neglect: as Aldred himself argued in a commentary on British anarchism, ideologies are too often shaped by the philosophical reflections of educated elites, leaving the thoughts of working class autodidacts who spend a lifetime standing on street corners, propagandising, ignored. Perhaps, too, his evangelical roots make his work an acquired taste: Aldred writes with moral certainty and conviction that leaves little room for debate. Most biographical accounts suggest that he was not an easy man to get along with and though he did not lack organisational skill, he found co-operation difficult. The pleasure he took in the pun of his name – ‘the man they all dread’ – was indicative of the problem. Yet Aldred’s ideas are compelling and the judgements he made in his early life were consistently revolutionary, libertarian, anarchistic and usually good. Aldred campaigned against marriage and for birth control in support of women’s liberation before the First World War; he encouraged conscientious objection in both world conflicts and publicised the vindictive abuse that COs suffered for taking their stance. In all his early writings, he elevated the struggles of common people – from religious non-conformists to convicts. Drawing on the reports of his comrades, Ethel MacDonald (1909−1960) and Jane (Jenny) Patrick (1884−1971), he supported the 1936 anarchist revolution in Spain  and until his later life, he consistently opposed the dogmatism of orthodox Marxism, whether it was expressed in the theoretical pieties of the European social democratic movement or, after the Russian Revolution, in the cold, physical brutality of the Stalinist regime. The passion with which he advanced these causes captures the spirit of an optimistic, utopian, romantic current of socialism whose hopes and ideals, squeezed by social democracy on one side and state socialism on the other, were ultimately disappointed but which remain inspiring.”
“Gift economies have a place in software lore. Eric Raymond used them to explain how open source works. Corey Doctorow built a non-monetary economy in his Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom.
My reading is that neither one of these are normal gift economies. Doctorow’s “whuffie” has the essential properties of money: it is quantifiable, you can lose it, and you must be concerned about whether the books balance.”
“Read carefully, and you can immediately see what’s going on here. Basically, the digital world has made sharing educational documents more efficient, such that reproducing printed copies of material is no longer a necessity. And academic publishers are freaking out because a revenue stream is threatened. This, of course, is where fair use should come into play as a protection for those seeking to share and enhance knowledge for our nation’s young people, something which virtually everyone would agree is important. But not so-called academic publishers. For them, it’s that revenue stream that’s important, and the progress of the nation’s knowledge be damned. ”
“Compass is an open-source CSS authoring framework which uses the Sass stylesheet language to make writing stylesheets powerful and easy. If you’re not familiar with Sass, you can take a look at these simple tutorials to get caught up.”
“This blog is serving as my lab journal for a class I’m taking called 19th Century Photographic Processes.
As described by Professor Goins, this class, “combines lecture and lab components in order to explore the materials and technology behind printing and photographic processes of the the 19th century.”
To that end, this blog includes the history, process and outcome of our attempts to recreate these historical processes. Questions and comments are always welcome. Enjoy!”
“The following formula was taken from Bob Schramm’s article in Post-Factory Photography. I have tried varying the amounts of each of the three ingredients but have found the basic formula to give the best results. Adding more tartaric acid seemed to increase contrast slightly and move the image color to a more neutral gray but then graininess became a problem. Adding more silver nitrate didn’t have much effect, as was the case with more ferric ammonium citrate. I doubled the amount of all the chemicals in the formula in an attempt to make a single coat solution and got excellent contrast with rich blacks but grain was again a problem. A drop or two of 1% gold chloride can be added to the sensitizer just before coating to move the image color towards purplish-brown. My main supplier of chemicals is Artcraft Chemicals (http://www.artcraftchemicals.com/) and I highly recommend them.”